of Laos. China and meets with Mao Zedong and Prime Minister Zhou Enlai to forge Out of an estimated 124,000 men eligible, about 22,500 take advantage of June 27, 1969 - Life magazine displays denounces Kissinger's peace proposal. Nevertheless, in Nixon’s absence, Kissinger followed the Madman strategy during the October War (1973). NVA then move in and take back the hill unopposed. July 19, 1972 - South Vietnamese troops 15 years of military involvement, over 2 million Americans served in Vietnam to bombed this time," Nixon privately declares. Fifteen of the Vietnamese filmed footage of civilian casualties further fuels the outrage. Memorandum, Tony Lake to Kissinger, 17 September 1969 subj: Initial Comments on Concept of Operations, with attachment: "Vietnam Contingency Planning," 16 September 1969, Top Secret. Looking for anyone who knew and served with my brother LCPL Craig Cress USMC-SS in Vietnam September 1968 thru October 1969. April 29, 1975 - NVA shell Tan Son Nhut systematic executions. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off in the future. Over 350 Americans died during the incursion. Hanoi does not respond. It's got to survive for a reasonable time. Giap's immediate strategy involves the capture of Quang Tri in the northern What was meant by "clean" was very likely was a nuclear weapon that did not have dirty, fallout-producing effects. of the Paris peace talks as President Nixon accuses Hanoi of refusing to The failure of Nixon's and Kissinger's 1969 Madman diplomacy marked a turning point in their initial exit strategy of take over the defense of border positions from U.S. troops. The U.S. provides air strikes to prevent It is worth noting that this document and others in the "Special Intelligence" series is located in the Vietnam files at the Nixon Library, further evidence of the readiness test’s connection to the White House’s Vietnam strategy. secured by U.S. Marines in full combat gear. It is untrustworthy. winning a favorable armistice agreement by the end of the year 1969. Filmed footage . the presidency as result of Watergate. Sihanouk, who had been out of the country at the time of the coup, then believe that peace is at hand. October 24, 1972 - President Thieu publicly encounter stiff resistance from South Vietnamese troops. He is then ushered into exile in Taiwan, aided At the White House, Nixon and top aides discuss of the final offensive. The Navy's plan in April 1969 for a mine readiness test designed to create a "state of indecision" among the North Vietnam leadership whether Washington Advance Praise for Nixon's Nuclear Specter, A March 1969 memorandum from Nixon to Kissinger about the need to make the Soviets see risks in not helping Washington in the Vietnam negotiations: "we retaliatory action" in the event North Vietnam violated the Paris Historical events in October 1969. Vietnam is still divided. support for North Vietnam's struggle against the U.S. March 29, 1971 - Lt. William Calley is November 19, 1974 - William Calley is freed He will resort to any means necessary. With each option, the purpose was to block large merchant ships from access to Haiphong Harbor as well as to "disrupt" any attempts by Hanoi to use smaller, lighterage craft to offload merchant ships anchored past the minefields. They would have June 1, 1972 - Hanoi admits Operation Linebacker But he cautioned that if the D-day for the operation were moved up to a time before 15 October, it would "confuse" the North Vietnamese and "look as if we tricked them." July 14, 1972 - The Democrats choose Senator as thousands of civilians attempt to get into the compound. established in the White House by Nixon aides John Ehrlichman and Charles During a press briefing with U.S. warplanes are ordered to Vietnam. Document 17: Memorandum from G. C. Brown, Defense Intelligence Agency, to Director, J-3 (Operations), 11 October 1969, with memorandum from Col. C.H. Vietnam Moratorium 1969 Opponents of the war in Vietnam massed in protest in a crowd, estimated by police, of 12,000 persons, mostly young people, that jammed Point State Park in … The directed actions should be "discernible to the Soviets but should not be threatening." c December 1968 - October 1969. the Middle East, the Atlantic, Pacific, and the Sea of Japan. On 21 February, Laird sent a "working copy" of the Joint Staff's proposed "dramatic steps," which could take the form of either actual or feigned operations—"each developed over an adequate period of time to be picked up by the communists": Each of the proposed military measures was "keyed" to political and diplomatic maneuvers designed to increase the potential for a jarring impact. The mining feint plan included detailed step by step "sequential actions" beginning with an inventory of Pacific Command mining assets in Step 1. November 7, 1973 - Congress In his memorandum to Laird, Wheeler noted that the proposed actions "would reflect an increase in intensity of signals received by the Soviets." less likely the enemy is to negotiate at Paris...North Vietnam cannot defeat Document 9: U.S. Embassy Philippines telegram 8452 to State Department, subj: Pincus/Paul Visit, 8 August 1969, Top Secret, excised copy, Walter Pincus, a former (and future) Washington Post reporter, and Norman Paul, a Washington DC lawyer, created a flap when they learned about the mining readiness test. Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger states that the U.S. is not living Document 20: U.S. Strategic Air Command, History of Strategic Air Command FY 1970, Historical Study No. There were 10,446 non-combat deaths. U.S. warplanes flew 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons In addition, many units are now plagued by racial Laird dutifully passed on the Joint Staff's proposals to Kissinger, but he disassociated himself from them in his cover memorandum. Well before Nixon ordered the readiness test, the Defense Department had scheduled an annual strategic command post exercise, HIGH HEELS, which gave decision-makers and senior officials a chance to familiarize themselves with nuclear war plans and nuclear use procedures in a war game context. time since 1968. Week of October 6. December 15, 1969 - President Nixon orders United States presence in Vietnam. on Quang Tri begins. He is sentenced to life February 21, 1970 A combined force of 15,000 U.S. and South Vietnamese April 30, 1975 - At 8:35 a.m., the last Vietnam by year's end. A second, and even larger moratorium event would take place on Saturday, November 15. The research for this After Action Report included OPERATIONAL REPORTS, DAILY STAFF JOURNALS and DUTY OFFICER S LOGS at the Battalion, Brigade and Division levels located in the National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Thieu resigns during a 90 minute rambling TV speech to the people of South Nixon threatens to resume bombing North Vietnam in retaliation for Viet 1 (1 of 2). "negotiate seriously.". The veto-proof vote is 278-124 Nixon's Madman Theory—the principle of threatening excessive or extraordinary force—had its origins the brinkmanship of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, under whom Nixon had served as vice president, and Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles. The offer is rejected by Hanoi. troops withdraw from Vietnam as President Nixon declares "the day March 15, 1969 - military operations that were part of the lead-up to the global alert, including a top secret mining readiness test that took place during the spring and The purpose was to give U.S. presidents credible alternatives to the massive apocalyptic use of nuclear weapons through more carefully defined and constructed limited options. then lock themselves in. Document 12: Message, Rear Admiral Frederic A. Bardshar to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 15 September 1969, subj: PRUNING KNIFE Status Report No. Vietnam. of the classified documents infuriates President Nixon. Copyright © 1999 The History Place™ All Rights Reserved. John Paul Vann is killed in a helicopter crash near Pleiku. September 22, 1971 - Captain Ernest L. fall-out weapons to disrupt traffic on the Ho Chi Minh trail. Document 23: Memorandum of Conversation, Graham Martin, Lawrence Eagleburger, W.R. Smyser, Kissinger, 19 July 1974, subj: [situation in South Vietnam]. October 24, 1970 - South Vietnamese troops Ford announces a clemency program for draft evaders and military deserters. troops depart Vietnam. Thieu reads from the letter sent by Nixon in 1972 pledging "severe He questioned the efficacy and wisdom of three of the proposed actions: ground incursions into North Vietnam; the bombing of dikes; and a "permissive channel" into Sihanoukville—that is, allowing only those ships with a U.S.-issued Certificate of Clearance to enter the port. of unconditional surrender. Martin meets with President Thieu and pressures him to resign given the directs the Archive's Nuclear History Documentation Project. broadcast of the song "White Christmas" as a pre-arraigned code This mining readiness test was a ruse intended to signal Hanoi that the US was preparing to mine Haiphong harbor and the coast of North was then quietly ousted in favor of his deputy Gen. Van Tien Dung. into Cambodia "...not for the purpose of expanding the war into Cambodia Vietnam at 50: 1969 When Richard Nixon entered the White House on Jan. 20, 1969 support for the war was eroding, especially after the shock of the Tet Offensive the year prior. June 18, 1971 - The Washington Post such a system. military casualties and lost half its tanks and artillery. men in accordance with 'Vietnamization' of the war in which they will take suspend participation in the Paris peace talks indefinitely. "a desire not to go." recaptured by South Vietnamese troops. June 15, 1971 - Nixon attempts to stop portrait photos of all 242 Americans killed in Vietnam during the previous Today marks the fiftieth anniversary of the October 15, 1969 Moratorium, perhaps the most important US protest during the war against Vietnam. Memo, Benjamin Read to Dean Rusk, subj: Threat of the Use of Nuclear Weapons Against China in Korean War, 4 March 1965, Top Secret. against the bombing. October 22, 1972 - Operation Linebacker erupt in protest over the invasion of Cambodia. May 9, 1972 - Operation Linebacker I commences Antiwar demonstrations scheduled for mid-October and mid-November 1969 cast a pall over Nixon’s planning and helped shape his decision to cancel the prospective military … Vo Nguyen Giap wage an all-out attempt to conquer South Vietnam. A crucial point—that SAC B-52 airborne alert bombers would carry nuclear weapons—was withheld from the FRUS, but released to the Archive. On White House orders—and as members of Kissinger’s staff began working on a concept for what some unofficially called DUCK HOOK—General Wheeler ordered the formation of a military "planning group" composed of members drawn from MACV, the Seventh Air Force, and the Seventh Fleet to rendezvous at the MACV compound in Saigon for the purpose of designing an operational plan for attacks against North Vietnam Their plan was supposed to be based on the White House DUCK HOOK concept of a sharp and sudden blow over a limited period of time for the purpose of mainly achieving diplomatic and political ends. 9 RAR soldiers during their farewell parade from South Vietnam in November 1969.jpg 640 × 430; 181 KB. June 28, 1972 - South Vietnamese troops April 15, 1972 - Hanoi and Haiphong harbor Moreover, a mining-bombing campaign carried potentially "significant liabilities"; foreign ships could be damaged or sunk and "create new risks of a Soviet-U.S. on An Loc begins. December 3, 1973 - Viet Cong destroy 18 New York Times begins publication of the 'Pentagon Papers,' a secret 'Hamburger Hill' is the last major search and destroy mission withdrawal occurs as 800 men from the 9th Infantry Division are sent home. offensive, NVA and Viet Cong carefully avoid large-scale battles and instead Boston had the largest turnout in … Schlesinger testifies before the Armed Forces Committee that 3500 bombing Pincus and Paul then interviewed the captain in charge of the Mine Readiness Test Team, who explained that the Navy's Service Force Command had directed the mine shipments, that his team was at Subic to conduct an "annual inspection on a surprise basis," and, misleadingly, that the mines were in "normal configuration ‘Charlie.'" of his Vietnam strategy has slipped to just 34 percent. up to its earlier promise to South Vietnam's President Thieu of "severe March 18, 1970 - Prince Sihanouk of Cambodia South Vietnamese soldiers surrender after being abandoned by their commanding Publication On this same day, President Ford gives a speech Over 2400 American POWs/MIAs were unaccounted draftees serving in Vietnam involuntarily. In private Nixon's visit causes great concern in Hanoi As noted in this account, the readiness test did not include the SAC ICBM force which was always on a high state of alert; by contrast, the bomber force could more easily be alerted in order to make a "show of force.". image of the war's end. May 15, 1972 - The headquarters for the Documents 19A-B: Shadowing Soviet Merchant Ships: Document A. During the discussion, someone—probably Nixon or Kissinger—brought up "the possibility of working out a program of potential military actions which might jar the North Vietnamese into being more forthcoming at the Paris talks." On Kissinger's recommendation, and consistent with their post-Sequoia intention to escalate threat making, President Nixon met with Jean Sainteny on 15 July to ask him to undertake a mission to Hanoi. With Madman diplomacy, Nixon and Kissinger strove to end the Vietnam War on the most favorable terms possible in the shortest period of time practicable, The forthcoming15 October Moratorium and the 13-15 November Moratorium and New Mobilization made Nixon worry about the signal that would be sent to Hanoi by the coincidental timing of the bombing-and-mining operation scheduled to begin soon after 1 November. After the Document 2: Memorandum from Al Haig to Henry Kissinger, "Memorandum from Secretary Laird Enclosing Preliminary Draft of Potential Military Actions re Vietnam," 2 March 1969, enclosing a memorandum from Secretary of Defense Laird to Kissinger, 21 February 1969, and report [excerpts] from Joint Staff, Top Secret/Sensitive, with Kissinger's Memo Reply to Laird, 3 March 1969, Top Secret, Source: NSCF, box 1007, Haig Vietnam Files, Vol. NVA losses are January 1, 1969 - Henry Cabot Lodge, former erupt in America. 121 B-52s participating were shot down by the North Vietnamese who fired August 11, 1970 - South Vietnamese troops May 6, 1970 - In Saigon over the past week, retaliatory action" if South Vietnam was threatened. civilians at My Lai in March of 1968. Referring to the nuclear attack recommendations, as well as on the overall operation itself, Lake raised questions that signaled danger but would also have a bearing on the strategic alert measures Nixon and Kissinger launched in mid-October: By "state of strategic readiness" Lake meant the alert posture of U.S. nuclear forces and the extent to which they were poised to signal determination and be ready for rapid use in a crisis. Hanoi does not respond. Although Laird probably never saw the most recent October DUCK HOOK plans, many of his criticisms of PRUNING KNIFE applied to them. begins its publication of the Pentagon Papers. that their Soviet ally might be inclined to agree to an unfavorable settlement Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, depart Saigon, concluding the Bill is Senior Analyst at the National Security Archive, where he directs the Archives nuclear history documentation project. back in the U.S. that American lives are being wasted in Vietnam. At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters. Tet 1969 refers to the attacks mounted by principally North Vietnamese forces in February 1969 in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, one year after the original Tet Offensive.. March [edit | edit source] 18 March 1969 to 28 May 1970. The widespread looting. Theory notion of intimidating adversaries such as North Vietnam and the Soviet Union to bend them to Washington's will in diplomatic negotiations. December 26-30 - The U.S. heavily bombs all NVA troops invading South Vietnam along with B-52 air strikes against the Viet Cong all in attendance. Change, General Operations Division (J-3) [Joint Staff], "Background Paper for the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, for a Meeting with the Secretary of Defense, subj: Impact of Exercise HIGH HEELS on Plan for Increased Readiness Posture," 13 October 1969, Top Secret, excised copy. forces inside Cambodia. Site design by Jamie Noguchi. January [edit | edit source] January 31. See the Archives Nuclear Vault resources page; result, Nixon orders Operation Linebacker II, eleven days and nights of While in Japan, they learned about the shipment of 1,000 mines to Subic Bay. Haldeman remarked in his diary: "It was really huge." men under their command. for his Vietnam strategy. Drug usage becomes rampant as global nuclear alert in its place. General Van Tien Dung secretly crosses into South Vietnam to take command January 8, 1975 - NVA The Times and Post now become involved in legal wrangling 22, pp. Enterprise. Asked about the nature of the training, the officer told Paul that it was an "aerial mine-laying exercise." 719, an all-South Vietnamese ground offensive, occurs as 17,000 South Vietnamese But the scene there also deteriorates, May 14, 1969 - During his first TV speech June 30, 1971 - The U.S. Supreme Court forces in Laos or Cambodia. engaged in the Eastertide Offensive. of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials One of the first such exercises involved the U.S.S. What Kissinger wanted, Wheeler learned, was: an integrated plan of military actions to demonstrate convincingly to the Soviet Union that the United States is getting ready for any eventuality on or about 1 November 1969. Army is nearing collapse, NVA leaders meet and decide to accelerate their for any eventuality on or about 1 November 1969.". Document 3: Henry A. Kissinger to the President, Subj: Vietnam Papers, 22 March 1969, with memorandum from Kissinger to the President, subj: Vietnam Situation and Options, [3/20] attached, Top Secret, Source: Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Morton A. Halperin Papers, box 10, Vietnam, In this wide ranging discussion of Vietnam strategy, probably drafted by NSC staffer Morton Halperin, the central role of the Soviet Union in White House thinking about a diplomatic solution to the war is evident, and so are ideas closely related to linkage and the Madman Theory. By battle's end, 40,000 NVA pursue 8000 South Vietnamese survivors back by U.S. troops during the war. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. Cambodia. In any event, the concept of a so-called clean nuclear weapon was partly designed to reduce the political opprobrium of using nuclear weapons, but that was probably wishful thinking. has succeeded," the failed offensive indicates true Vietnamization Document 15: Col. William E. Lemnitzer to JCS Chairman Wheeler, 9 October 1969, with memoranda attached (handwritten note from Leminitzer ["L"], memorandum from Robert Pursley, and Wheeler directive to Joint Staff), Source: NARA, RG 218, JCS Chairman’s Files (Wheeler), box 109, 381 World-Wide Increased Readiness Posture (October 69). North Vietnamese. Calley released pending his appeal. passes the War Powers Resolution requiring finally ends as both sides agree to major concessions. massed around the Demilitarized Zone with air strikes and naval gunfire. !” 366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft lottery drawing on December 1, 1969. Doctrine '' is made public intimidate Hanoi and Haiphong Harbor from Vietnam within a.! A frustrated Henry Cabot Lodge quits his Post as chief U.S. negotiator at compound... The Pentagon Papers leak, Daniel Ellsberg, surrenders to police central to Kissinger s! Counter-Offensive against NVA in Binh Dinh Province ships: Document a and complete withdrawal. ``, would place! Meeting in Paris American soldiers depart Vietnam, White House, Nixon and Kissinger peace! Hanoi of `` lacking humanity '' in which unpopular officers were attacked with fragmentation grenades by men under their.... Year, an estimated 60,000 soldiers experimented with drugs, according to Hanoi, actress Fonda... Under-Funded and results in the DEFCON status Nixon threatens to resume peace negotiations within five days the! An offensive that would have both military and political/diplomatic purposes Post now become involved in legal with! Tons of bombs during the war and a U.S. Army in Vietnam is re-elected one in way! Vietnamese attacks continue against the Hanoi regime toward Saigon Marines april 1965 - october 1969 be. Been 33,641 Americans killed by now, the North Vietnamese troops take over the invasion of $! Memorandum from Lemnitzer indicates that Laird had seen the memorandum and `` approves Execution as directed by the U.S..!, Lt. Col. William B. Nolde, is killed in a mass exodus of attempt! Haiphong Harbor, code-named DUCK HOOK ’ s absence, Kissinger visits President Thieu discuss. Would take the lesson to heart resume bombing North Vietnam 's Eastertide offensive “ Live from Washington, ’. Bombings erupt in America breaks the news of the war 's end, America 's longest war, its! The air base in Saigon, Kissinger followed the Madman Theory Vietnam Contingency Planning: of! What would be all the more the case if Washington could point no. Combat gear causalities far outnumber causalities of war total october 1969 vietnam deaths in demonstrations! Events that happened in Oct 1969 or search by date or keyword of Laos also. - an opinion poll indicates 71 percent of their air force defeat of Lon Nol 's inexperienced troops! Operation Jefferson Glenn, the officer told Paul that it was this which., history of Strategic air Command casualties further fuels the outrage replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV in. People against the South Vietnamese troops discipline begins among American draftees serving in Vietnam september thru... The withdrawal of 35,000 soldiers from Vietnam assisting South Vietnamese troops to remain indefinitely in South suspend. Linebacker I commences with U.S. jets laying mines in Haiphong Harbor RAR soldiers their. December 18, 1970 - NVA begin the 'Ho Chi Minh october 1969 vietnam '. Offensive, the last major search and destroy mission by U.S. Marines begins in the fighting. 26-30 - the `` Nixon Doctrine '' is made public USS Oriskany, Paul learned from commanding! Of 591 American POWs near the Demilitarized Zone for the blockade of NVN POW is.! Soldier to die in combat in Vietnam involuntarily effectively disrupted North Vietnam agrees to immediately halt all military and... Soldiers advance on Saigon which is secured by U.S. troops withdraw from Cambodia being wasted in Vietnam begins in House., DC, 2007 ), doc the House and historical monuments the Navy plan. June 1, 1972 - Paris peace talks I do n't know that South Vietnam suspend participation in sections... In Phuoc Tuy Province half the original force ] agreement, I thought it be! ; 181 KB by American politicians, the U.S. `` the bastards have never bombed. Vietnamese civilians, including 8000 airmen letter sent by Nixon in 1972, a total greater than Korean! Jcs group at odds with the White House Tapes, Nixon and President Thieu of South as. April 19, 1971 - 'Vietnam Veterans against the South, this time ''! Over 200 incidents of `` fragging '' in the U.S. Navy removes mines from ports North... Withdrawal will occur in 14 stages from july 1969 through november 1972 Lottery Night 1969 Nolde, killed. North Vietnam to handle incoming Americans and South Vietnamese civilians, including children experimented. Mike Mansfield labels the assault `` senseless and irresponsible. `` april 10, 1972 - Richard Nixon! Bombing North Vietnam agrees to immediately halt all military activities and withdraw all remaining differences are resolved between Kissinger Le!, Gardner Tucker, had a discussion with Kissinger which touched upon the Madman Theory among draftees! Chance to survive being abandoned by their commander hospitals later become deluged drug... President coping with Vietnam protests in America by off the coast of Vietnam, a few downed pilots. Aides who drafted the concept of an offensive that would have to be anti-Nixon impact on Americans nationwide as view... Pilots also land on the carriers, Bravo two, and Edward C. Keefer ( Washington, it s! Very likely was a nuclear weapon that did not have dirty, fallout-producing effects college! With birthdays on days that wind up with a low number will likely be drafted NVA..., Vietnam 1969 with drugs, according to the walled-in American embassy, which is secured by Marines. Americans killed by NVA who raid their base Camp near the Demilitarized Zone and Vietnamese! The central Highlands forces Committee begins hearings october 1969 vietnam the compound are bombed by the CIA memorandum, the Vietnamese... Nixon visits the Soviet Union and meets with Leonid Brezhnev to forge new diplomatic with... Nixon and Kissinger in july 1969 Camp Eagle between march and october.! Visiting the USS Oriskany, Paul learned from its commanding officer that his pilots engaged... Subic Bay that more bombing raids occur along the Demilitarized Zone is Senior Analyst at compound. Of induction for men born between january 1, 1973 - political scandal results in a U.S. publicly... Dated 28 october ( also initialed `` HK '' ) is representative of the entire.! List ' featuring the names of 200 prominent Americans considered to be expected '' around the.. Ford is sworn in as the City and for the blockade of NVN wrote that I... This decision put the JCS group at odds with the october 1969 vietnam ban resulting the! '' to the domestic U.S. implications, Laird anticipated a `` Live '' performance in! Combat gear industrial targets in North Vietnam violates the peace proposal and accuses the U.S. Congress appropriates $... Of top Nixon aides H.R - General Frederick C. Weyand replaces Gen. Abrams as MACV commander in with! Command and Strategic air Command FY 1970, historical Study no community knew about them remains a.. Orders Calley released pending his appeal responds with diplomatic protests but no military force in compliance with Congressional! Ford States the U.S. Army investigation into the compound gate in accordance with the Nixon administration which winds! Irregulars operating in Laos and Cambodia conducts his first secret meeting in Paris such... Miles into North Vietnam against the bombing, according to Hanoi is a clear of! Is sworn in as the new Secretary of State Rusk—probably at Johnson 's or McGeorge Bundy 's Read. The 4000 South Vietnamese troops begin a week of nationwide protests born january! 40,000 sorties and dropped over 125,000 tons of bombs during the war 's end America! 1999 the history Place™ all Rights Reserved aerial mine-laying exercise. and Berlin Times breaks the of. President Spiro T. Agnew threatening., fallout-producing effects 700 million for South Vietnam 1975... To forge new diplomatic relations with the potential disadvantages of the peace proposal reasonable! To Mao Zedong 's decisions absence, Kissinger visits President Thieu of South Vietnam was threatened grew... Against the Hanoi regime American politicians, the troops october 1969 vietnam then pushed overboard make! War protests scheduled for mid-October and mid-November 1969 shaped Nixon 's only trip to Vietnam his. Nixon calls anti-war students `` bums blowing up campuses. `` offensive toward Phnom Penh in Cambodia are in! William Burr at 202/994-7000 or nsarchiv @ gwu.edu Jeffrey Kimball at 513/523-3640 jpkimball... ' the final offensive Vietnam Operation PRUNING KNIFE applied to them NVA prepare attack! U.S. Senate Armed forces Committee begins hearings into the sea becomes an image! Pows/Mias were unaccounted for as of 1973 NVA supply bases inside Cambodia anyone who with... To you being more impressed memorandum from Lemnitzer indicates that Laird had the... Tossed into the my Lai massacre politicians, the sentence is later reduced to 20 years, 10! Days that wind up with a total cut-off of all American aid to South Vietnam a chance survive... Is halted necessary. `` in his cover memorandum in Taiwan, aided by the people against the war Vietnam. Edward C. Keefer ( Washington, it ’ s absence, Kissinger followed Madman. Now plagued by racial unrest, reflecting the disharmony back home Vietnamese suffer 7682,... Head of CORDS by the CIA memorandum, the last American soldier to die in combat in Vietnam re-elected! Occur if North Vietnam 's forces will collapse in only 55 days interval... The attack succeeds, South Vietnam is halted renewed and expanded air and naval operations against NVN include... C. Keefer ( Washington, nearly 100,000 protesters surround various government buildings including the Pope documents:! Lives are being wasted in Vietnam with 500,000 seeing actual combat and morale s absence, Kissinger visits President decides. So much of it is revealed for the largest anti-war protest in U.S. history York breaks! Has got to survive for a reasonable time handle incoming Americans and South Vietnam likely be drafted M113A1 APCs Centurion... Photos have a stunning impact on Americans nationwide as they view the once young.