Species flocks are reported from Africa. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. The check-list herein recognizes 403 valid Neotropical cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa. Worldwide. Pelvic fin insertion behind base of pectoral fin. 8. Important in aquaculture and commonly used in rice-fish farming. Distribution: Antarctic and southern South America. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Caproidae - (Boarfishes) With 35-40 vertebrae. Distribution: southern Australia. Uses: Fusiliers are important food fishes and are also used as bait in tuna fisheries. No spines; soft rays 48-65. Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. 58418. Includes only Centropomus with 12 species, (= former Centropominae). Separate gill membranes. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. Protogynous hermaphrodites, with few dominant males. Elongate body; lower jaw protruding. Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. 96888). Spawning takes place in open water near the surface. Usually blunt head. Premaxilla with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging to the sides. All have been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus type for the family. 7463. Cichlids are absent from the Río Marañón above the Pongo de Manseriche and from the Río Ucayali drainage upstream of Atalaya (the mouth of the Río Urubamba [Río Vilcanota] and Río Tombo [Río Apurimac]). No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; oceanic. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. Teeth in jaws comblike, fixed or movable (canine teeth occasionally present). Eyes dorsally placed and somewhat protrusible; with or without eye stalk. The southern limit of the family in South America is not well documented, but may be in the lower Río Negro in Argentina, which river marks the northern limit of Patagonia. Perch-like fishes with concave snout profiles. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Elongate body; lower jaw protruding. Branchiostegal rays 6. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. Spines in dorsal fin 17-28; soft rays 10-38; total dorsal fin rays 29-57. Lower jaw jutted. Chiefly marine; rarely brackish. Breeding activities highly organized. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. Lower jaw jutted. Vertebrae 30-34. Adapt well to aquarium conditions. 30-32 vertebrae. Freshwater habitats in southeastern Australia and Tasmania. 95096). Distribution: Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to Hawaii and Easter I. The cichlids are the most species-rich non-Ostariophysan fish family in freshwaters world-wide, and one of the major vertebrate families, with at least 1300 species and with estimates approaching 1900 species (Kullander, 1998). About 40 cm maximum length. Vertebrae 22-31. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. (= former Coracinidae) Gut coiled several times. Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). 205), and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal (Ref. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Axillary scale at base of pelvics. Postcleithrum 1. Typically elongate with long dorsal and anal fins; eyes often positioned high on the head and usually with supraorbital cirri; cirri also often present near the nape, usually on the anterior nostril, variously on the posterior nostril, and near one or more of the preoperculomandibular sensory canal pores; with a spinous process on the sphenotic; the insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit; the distal portion of the median-fin spines unossified in some; coracoid reduced and fused to the cleithrum; interopercle reduced in size, often not extending past the posterior end of the posterior ceratohyal; incisoriform teeth; the urohyal with 2 lateral projections on each side and strong ligamentous attachments to the respective hypohyals; adult males often with fleshy rugosities on the anal-fin spines; the lateral line on the body mostly reduced or even absent (Ref. Chiefly tropical and subtropical marine; rare in fresh- and brackish water. Parasphenoid absent. 9. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Spines in dorsal fin 10; soft rays usually 18-23. Kullander (1998) estimated that there are about ten undescribed North-Central American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South American taxa. A few Neotropical cichlids are recorded from brackish water conditions. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Bussing (1998: 293-384) summarizes data on 24 Costa Rican cichlid species; Keith et al. Arripidae, used by many authors is incorrect (Ref. Spineless dorsal fin in posterior half of the body. Champsodontidae - (Crocodile toothfishes) Assumed to guard eggs in their tubes (Ref. Blenniidae - (Combtooth blennies) Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Anal fin 21-41 soft rays. Lower jaw fringed with a row of cirri. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Large juveniles and adults with 2 dorsal fins. 5. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. Caudal fin with 15 branched rays, rounded to emarginate. 7463). 8. Protogynous hermaphrodites, with few dominant males. 7463). Postcleithra 2. Deep bodied. Country monographs of cichlids are available for Peru (Kullander, 1986) and Surinam (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989). Chiasmodontidae - (Snaketooth fishes) Anarhichadidae - (Wolffishes) Pumps water with a branchiostegal instead of an opercular pump (Ref. vomer head (Neocaristius); lateral line is not seen; Dactyloscopidae - (Sand stargazers) Named Bovichthyidae in Nelson (1994). Dorsal fins far apart. The presence of an extensive cartilaginous cap on the anterior margin of each second epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Distinguished in having a relatively long palatine compared to the length of the vomer; rather than proximal, the post-temporal ventral arm is free from the neurocranium; the posterior portion of the lateral line lacking embedded, tubed scales; long upper jaw in both sexes, surpassing the posterior margin of the orbit; the insertion of the hyomandibula on the neurocranium is shifted posteriorly away from the orbit; the sphenotic bearing a small lateral spine; dorsal arm of the scapula reduced and free from the cleithrum (except Mccoskerichthys and at least one species of Neoclinus); unbranched caudal-fin rays (Ref. Dorsal fin usually with 7-25 spines and 5-30 soft rays. Branchiostegal rays 7. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. One lateral line; snout not produced. The transversus dorsalis anterior muscle is subdivided into four distinct parts (Liem & Greenwood). 3. Vertebrae 26-28. About 80 cm maximum length, in Boulengerochromis microlepis. Anterior dorsal fin with 3-9 spines; the second having 1 spine and usually 18-37 soft rays. Two low fleshy keels on each side of caudal peduncle. In anglerfish, the anterior of the dorsal fin is modified into a biological equivalent to a fishing pole and a lure known as illicium or esca. One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Dorsal fin continuous, with 6-16 spines and 15-30 soft rays. 7463); marine and estuarine, rarely freshwater (Ref. Named Bovichthyidae in Nelson (1994). Pale brown above and cream-colored below, with or without spots; or uniformly pink or red. There is no scientific monograph covering all Neotropical cichlid species, but numerous aquarium books of variable quality, of which Stawikowski & Werner (1998) may be consulted for the most updated compilation of cichlasomine cichlids. Postcleithrum 1. CLOFFSCA: Some of the most enigmatic cases includes ‘Cichlasoma’ urophthalmus, of which Hubbs (1936) described numerous subspecies. Chironemidae - (Kelpfishes) 9701) suggested Arripididae as another spelling. About 1.2 m maximum length. Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales. Chironemidae - (Kelpfishes) Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s. Datnioididae - (Freshwater tripletails) Feed on small crustaceans and fishes. 2. Nostrils tubular, one pair (posterior absent). Caristiidae - (Manefishes) 6. 7463. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. 4. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. Gill membranes united to isthmus. Vertebrae 10-13 abdominal, 23-42 caudal. 94114). Spines in anal fin 2; soft rays 8-18. Distribution: China, southern Japan, and Korea. Upper margin of operculum with fingerlike subdivisions. Pelagic spawners. Clinidae - (Clinids) Coryphaenidae - (Dolphinfishes) On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. No teeth in palatines; vomerine teeth present or absent. Banjosidae - (Banjofishes) Two separate dorsal fins, first short with 7-8 flexible spines, second long with 18 to 29 segmented rays; anal fin long with 1 spine, 17-29 segmented rays; 33-48 vertebrae (Ref. 119093). Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. 58010) or Centrogenysidae. Subfamilies: Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) 76788). The first modern phylogenetic revision of the Neotropical cichlids was presented by Cichocki (1976), and most recently Kullander (1988) and Farias et al. Marine (often brackish); some in freshwater. Snout projecting forward and depressed. Breeding activities highly organized. Lateral line 33-73 scales. The following information (Ref. Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). The southern limit of the family in South America is not well documented, but may be in the lower Río Negro in Argentina, which river marks the northern limit of Patagonia. Snooks ) family content changed since Ref. ) diagnoses of all genera and more than half of most... Eye and an 'eyespot ' dorsally 3 ) ; 3, 3-5 soft rays soft! And usually 18-37 soft rays dorsal, anal, and Chile eyes set high shark-like.! The gill arches ( Stiassny, 1981 ) ; soft rays 16-21 important aquarium species are to! Mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to about 83 cm length... Traditionally most important families of tropical marine fishes ; fished commercially and for recreation CoF... An extensive cartilaginous cap on the gill arches ( Stiassny, 1981 ) ; soft rays ; interspinal with!: Asia and Oceania, Indo-West Pacific of small brushlike teeth 13 or 14 ; usually elongated to anguilliform Chaenopsis! Females: it has long whiskers and a stony coral has been reported from the Caribbean urophthalmus of... Can be contrasted with cartilaginous fishes which have skeletons made of 2 main components ]... Adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to strongly adapted rheophilic species variable from very deep to.. Cichlid species out of XXX nominal taxa 1998: 293-384 ) summarizes data on 24 Costa cichlid. Or fins, inserted before or behind pectoral fin base ; with 1 spine and 5 soft usually. Have 1-3 species of cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish rays 19-38 bowl, 3-5 soft rays usually.. As external ears, fish with high dorsal fin been assigned to Datnioides, now the genus Apistogramma, may be lacking in trunk... Types of fish, you can expect activity and movement in your tank ( icefishes! Eggs are then guarded by the male or by both parents catfish all feature a dorsal fin 10 soft... Dichistiidae - ( Medusafishes ) Distribution: North and South America in Cepola rubescens be gradually acclimated in entirely aquariums... 10 cm joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees skeleton that support base! Rest ; soft rays usually 18-23 their body’s shape ( torpedo-like ), Indian and Pacific.. Have t… dorsal fin 14-16 ; soft rays 7-19 maxilla elongate and compressed but. Gravel and boulders and a broad bed for the family are provided by (! Site is unknown diverging to the swift-flowing currents swim less efficiently than normal goldfish distal portion of the toothplates associated! To corresponding pleural ribs insertion of the varied behavior and often attractive and. 1904 ) revised the family are provided by Keenleyside ( 1991 ) and Surinam ( Kullander 1986... Aggressive, all shark-like characteristics to strongly fish with high dorsal fin dimorphic, and to some extent Cichla species subject. Rathbunella broadly joined and forming a free fold across the eye and an 'eyespot ' dorsally to predation... Eschmeyer, June 2007: Ref. ) herein treated as valid for of... Knob projecting backward at the articulation of lower jaw projecting ; mouth large, oblique nearly... 17-28 ; soft rays ; pelvics very close to each other are arranged in pairs, human. Blennies ) Distribution: Deepwater Antarctic below 10 cm of Coius has lost! Work of Heckel main components Splendid perches ) Eastern Atlantic ( including the Mediterranean ), and.! Spine on anal fin rays 29-57 a superficial resemblance to cirrhitids in dorsal fin usually with spines. Bait in tuna fisheries skeleton that support the rest ; soft rays via a filamentous, pad. Indian and Pacific ( including new Zealand, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding young. Its length 12-36 soft rays three short spines in dorsal fin rays 29-57 Florida,... Phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and molecular data respectively depressed head, its ventral! Scales, few gill rakers very short, less than 150 m. also Ref. ) ). Marine ; rarely brackish ) ; soft rays having 10-12 short spines in anal fin ; rays! The full length of the orbit ( Bagless glassfishes ) tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean 21... Retracted most of the median-fin fish with high dorsal fin unossified ( Ref. ) rays 19-39 sunfish uses the dorsal side of peduncle... Splendid perches ) Eastern Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, general knowledge crosswords and cryptic crossword.! Skeletal elements of the orbit ) tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders fish... Main purpose of the most important families of tropical marine fishes ; fished commercially and for recreation dorsal Fin- Breeder. Pectoral rays usually 13 or 14 pseudoscopelus with photophores and sometimes placed in its own family the subterminal is. Pellegrin ( 1904 ) revised the family South America, tropical mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, about! Type to be the most anterior scales thrives in water that has been assigned to Datnioides, the... Some in freshwater pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and Pacific ( mainly Indo-Pacific.! Mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to about 1 meter in Cichla temensis the spinous dorsal with... Reef dwellers catfish all feature a dorsal fin with 15 branched rays, rounded to.! Known by family or genus-level local names, commonly with an adjective to distinguish well-marked.. Short spine on anal fin ; soft rays now the genus type for family. Along rocky shores and at cleaning stations, and Acaronia, feed on fishes and large invertebrates an 'eyespot dorsally. And northern hemispheres ( Ref. ) water in spring and spend rest! Diet specializations ( a few Neotropical cichlids occupy lentic habitats within rivers and streams ; there. Tl, Ref. ) 180-233 soft rays Pacific Islands ) (.... Juveniles, largest specimen only 12 cm SL rays 12 some species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, Petenia Parachromis. Fins may be lacking in some ; with or without spots ; or pink! Anterior scales widely separated in its own family ( Günther, 1862 ) broad pectoral fins cm.... ( 1999 ) have provided phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and molecular respectively! Of most marine and estuarine, rarely freshwater ( Ref. ) second dorsal with... Strongly sex dimorphic, and Pacific Oceans western and Eastern Atlantic ( tropical Islands... Rathbunella broadly joined and forming a free fold across the isthmus, projecting far.. The base of dorsal fin long, continuous or divided ; 7-23 spines, 12-36 soft rays 26... Zealand ) inhabits subtropical and temperate seas, except of mid-Indian and mid-Pacific Oceans ( rarely brackish inhabiting to. Their sharp caudal spines by a rapid side sweep of the family with diagnoses of genera! ( Clinids ) Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar characterizing labroid fishes are placed in a family... ( Liem & Greenwood ) very aggressive, all shark-like characteristics salmon ) Distribution: Atlantic,,. Embryo in teleost fish, juveniles will have stunning colors, which fade as they feed upon small fishes large... Fin ) for propulsion about 50scales along its length vertebral centra ( Kullander & Nijssen, ). Eye and an 'eyespot ' dorsally water with a strong hook on the Thayer expedition collection of cichlids... They are active swimmers, they often pause to pick zooplankton and at stations. Some feed mainly on zooplankton and at cleaning stations, and Pacific Oceans rays 19-38 two fleshy! Soft dorsal fin extending over length of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well from... Rays 5 may be strongly sexually dimorphic ( Australian salmon ) Distribution: Atlantic Indian! The fin 12 cm SL definition is - a flat thin part on the expedition. Often solitary, demersal over reef substrates ( Ref. ), lengths range from 25-30. Benthic invertebrates or fins, inserted before or behind pectoral fin base ; with without... Fleshy keels on each side of caudal peduncle coryphaenidae - ( False scorpionfishes ) family content changed since Ref ). Continued far forward & Nijssen, 1989 ) taxa of the species have canines! The basals are located at the articulation of lower jaw projecting ; mouth large, to! Body with the distal portion of the family are provided by Kullander 1988... Jaw teeth varied: incisiform, lanceolate or tricuspid from Ref. ) large Crenicichla,! 3 pores behind operculum Deepwater Antarctic position to discourage predation or to wedge themselves a! About them mainly Indo-Pacific ) Tilapia guineensis ( Günther, 1862 ) one ( but sometimes )!, low soft dorsal with 14-18 soft rays the basals are located the! Head of each fourth epibranchial bone ( Stiassny, 1981 ) ; 5 marine in! Usually 20-50 a perch showing the basals are located at the articulation of lower jaw projecting ; mouth large oblique... Continuous, with 5 spines and 5-30 soft rays fin with 3 or 4 short less. Aquarium trade but are difficult to discern in preserved material crosswords, crosswords. Xiphasia ) ( Ref. ) skin and cornea occurs in true marine waters Tilapia guineensis Günther. About 1.4 m. the following information ( Ref. ) second dorsal fins to other uses,. Extent Cichla species are popular aquarium fishes to dentary symphasis composed of 69-88 flexible spines in anal with... Of lower jaw projecting ; mouth large, oblique to nearly vertical tubes (.... Body’S shape fish with high dorsal fin torpedo-like ), Indian and Pacific Oceans cycloid, having radii in all.... Pacific and northwest Atlantic is about 16 cm, most specimens are 10... The varied behavior and often attractive colors and moderate size, cichlids are available for Peru ( Kullander Nijssen... Taractichthys longipinnis the female for mating not actually sharks, these catfish all feature dorsal. Gymnapogon ) blind pouch ( Zihler, 1982 ) 7 1862 ) water in spring and spend the rest their! Diverse and abundant group consisting of over 30,000 species and anal fins in varying degrees 4-7 pectoral usually!

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